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Nov 15, 2019
Episode 293 is your updated complete guide to injectable glutathione! Glutathione (GSH) has so much misunderstanding and misinformation in our industry that I want to ensure people understand a lot of the interactions and MoA going on with this compound. It has tremendous application as a "health", restoration, and progression tool when utilized in the proper setting. Sit back, take notes, and enjoy the references I'll attach to this episode!
 

REFERENCES

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  2. Arakane F., King S. R., Du Y., Kallen C. B., Walsh L. P., Watari H., et al. (1997). Phosphorylation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) modulates its steroidogenic activity. J. Biol. Chem. 272 32656–32662 10.1074/jbc.272.51.32656
  3. Armeni T., Cianfruglia L., Piva F., Urbanelli L., Luisa Caniglia M., Pugnaloni A., et al. (2014). S-D-Lactoylglutathione can be an alternative supply of mitochondrial glutathione. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 67 451–459 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.12.005
  4. Armstrong J. S., Jones D. P. (2002). Glutathione depletion enforces the mitochondrial permeability transition and causes cell death in Bcl-2 overexpressing HL60 cells. FASEB J. 16 1263–1265 10.1096/fj.02-0097fje
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  9. Beer S. M., Taylor E. R., Brown S. E., Dahm C. C., Costa N. J., Runswick M. J., et al. (2004). Glutaredoxin 2 catalyzes the reversible oxidation and glutathionylation of mitochondrial membrane thiol proteins: implications for mitochondrial redox regulation and antioxidant DEFENSE. J. Biol. Chem. 279 47939–47951 10.1074/jbc.M408011200
  10. Benipal B., Lash L. H. (2013). Modulation of mitochondrial glutathione status and cellular energetics in primary cultures of proximal tubular cells from remnant kidney of uninephrectomized rats. Biochem. Pharmacol. 85 1379–1388 10.1016/j.bcp.2013.02.013
  11. Brand M. D. (2010). The sites and topology of mitochondrial superoxide production. Exp. Gerontol. 45 466–472 10.1016/j.exger.2010.01.003
  12. Brigelius-Flohe R., Maiorino M. (2013). Glutathione peroxidases. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830 3289–3303 10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.11.020
  13. Casagrande S., Bonetto V., Fratelli M., Gianazza E., Eberini I., Massignan T., et al. (2002). Glutathionylation of human thioredoxin: a possible crosstalk between the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 9745–9749 10.1073/pnas.152168599
  14. Chang T. S., Cho C. S., Park S., Yu S., Kang S. W., Rhee S. G. (2004). Peroxiredoxin III, a mitochondrion-specific peroxidase, regulates apoptotic signaling by mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 279 41975–41984 10.1074/jbc.M407707200
  15. Garcia-Ruiz C., Fernandez-Checa J. C. (2006). Mitochondrial glutathione: hepatocellular survival-death switch. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 21(Suppl. 3) S3–S6 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2006.04570.
  16. Garcia-Ruiz C., Morales A., Ballesta A., Rodes J., Kaplowitz N., Fernandez-Checa J. C. (1994). Effect of chronic ethanol feeding on glutathione and functional integrity of mitochondria in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 94 193–201 10.1172/JCI117306
  17. Griffith O. W., Meister A. (1985). Origin and turnover of mitochondrial glutathione. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82 4668–4672 10.1073/pnas.82.14.4668
  18. Kokoszka J. E., Waymire K. G., Levy S. E., Sligh J. E., Cai J., Jones D. P., et al. (2004). The ADP/ATP translocator is not essential for the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Nature 427 461–465 10.1038/nature02229
  19. Kroemer G., Galluzzi L., Brenner C. (2007). Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in cell death. Physiol. Rev. 87 99–163 10.1152/physrev.00013.2006
  20. Kulawiak B., Hopker J., Gebert M., Guiard B., Wiedemann N., Gebert N. (2013). The mitochondrial protein import machinery has multiple connections to the respiratory chain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1827 612–626 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.12.004
  21. Lash L. H. (2006). Mitochondrial glutathione transport: physiological, pathological and toxicological implications. Chem. Biol. Interact. 163 54–67 10.1016/j.cbi.2006.03.001
  22. Miller W. L. (2013). Steroid hormone synthesis in mitochondria. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 379 62–73 10.1016/j.mce.2013.04.014
  23. Muller F. L., Lustgarten M. S., Jang Y., Richardson A, Van Remmen H. (2007). Trends in oxidative aging theories. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43 477–503 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.03.034
  24. Munoz-Pinedo C., Guio-Carrion A., Goldstein J. C., Fitzgerald P., Newmeyer D. D., Green D. R. (2006). Different mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins are released during apoptosis in a manner that is coordinately initiated but can vary in duration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 11573–11578 10.1073/pnas.0603007103
  25. Schumacker P. T. (2006). Reactive oxygen species in cancer cells: live by the sword, die by the sword. Cancer Cell 10 175–176 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.08.015
  26. Sena L. A., Chandel N. S. (2012). Physiological roles of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Mol. Cell 48 158–167 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.09.025
  27. Serviddio G., Bellanti F., Tamborra R., Rollo T., Capitanio N., Romano A. D., et al. (2008). Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) induces mitochondrial proton leak and increases susceptibility of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) liver to ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Gut 57 957–965 10.1136/gut.2007.147496
  28. Venditti P., Di Stefano L, Di Meo S. (2013). Mitochondrial metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrion 13 71–82 10.1016/j.mito.2013.01.008
  29. Yin F., Sancheti H., Cadenas E. (2012). Mitochondrial thiols in the regulation of cell death pathways. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17 1714–1727 10.1089/ars.2012.4639
  30. Yue P., Zhou Z., Khuri F. R., Sun S. Y. (2006). Depletion of intracellular glutathione contributes to JNK-mediated death receptor 5 upregulation and apoptosis induction by the novel synthetic triterpenoid methyl-2-cyano-3, 12-dioxooleana-1, 9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me). Cancer Biol. Ther. 5 492–497 10.4161/cbt.5.5.2565
  31. Zhao P., Kalhorn T. F., Slattery J. T. (2002). Selective mitochondrial glutathione depletion by ethanol enhances acetaminophen toxicity in rat liver. Hepatology 36 326–335 10.1053/jhep.2002.34943
 
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